|Publication Type:||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication:||2003|
|Authors:||Abaunza, P., Gordo, L., Karlou-Riga, C., Murta, A., Eltink, A., Santamaría, M. T. García, Zimmermann, C., Hammer, C., Lucio, P., Iversen, S. A.|
|Journal:||Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries|
|Keywords:||growth, reproduction, αναπαραγωγή, ανάπτυξη|
There is a broad knowledge of the growth and reproduction of Trachurus trachurus, although important gaps still exist. Horse mackerel are a long-lived species, reaching up to 40 years of age. They have isometric growth, although the alometric parameter b may vary throughout the year and in relation to latitude. Growth to age 3 is rapid compared to slower growth later in life. Phenomena of density dependent growth have been observed in the northeast Atlantic. Horse mackerel are an asynchronous species. The following stages of atresia have been validated in horse mackerel: alpha, beta, and delta. The transition in females from the spawning state to post spawning is very fast. The spawning fraction in horse mackerel is estimated to be between 8.3% and 20.9%. Horse mackerel have a long spawning season (up to 8 months), which varies according to geography. Length at first 28 maturity is between 16 and 25 cm, most commonly around 21 cm. Males mature at a slightly smaller length than females. The age at first maturity for females has been estimated to range from 2 to 4 years, depending on the geography. Batch fecundity has been estimated to range between 172–209 oocytes per gram-female-weight. Female spawning lasts between 65 and 94 days. An individual female can release from 5 to 16 batches during the spawning period. The estimated potential annual relative fecundity ranges from 1040 to 3280 oocytes per gram-female-weight.